Performance of Pro-Vitamin A Maize Synthetics and Hybrids Selected for Release in Ghana

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Author(s) Manfred B. Ewoo | Richard Akromah | Patricia P. Acheampong
Pages 268-291
Volume 5
Issue 6
Date June, 2016
Keywords Malnutrition, Immune System, Blindness, Orange Maize, Metabolic Processes, Benefit Cost Ratios, GGE Biplot
Abstract

Vitamin A deficiencies are serious forms of malnutrition that retard growth, weaken the immune system and may also cause blindness. Orange maize varieties may contain high levels of this nutrient in its natural form and when ingested, become available to the body for metabolic processes. The traditional system of variety release in Ghana involves multi-location and on-farm testing, morphological descriptions, physico-chemical properties determination, consumer preferences and economic analysis. Multi-location trials involving Pro-vitamin A (PVA) synthetics and hybrids were established at 7 locations in 2013 and 2014 major and minor seasons given a total of 12 and 13 environments respectively for the hybrids and synthetics. GGE biplot analysis revealed that PC1 and PC2 explained 88.31% and 86.09% of the total variation in the PVA hybrids and synthetics respectively. Based on superiority and stability, the biplot indicated that the best PVA synthetic maize genotype was PVA SYN 13 and this had a potential yield of 4 t/ha and pro-vitamin A content of 9.3 µg/g and in the case of the hybrids, these were LY1001-14, LY 1001-10 and LY 1001-22 and had potential yields of 6.0 t/ha, 6.1 t/ha and 5.4 t/ha and pro-vitamin A contents of 9.2 µg/g, 11.3 µg/g and 8.5 µg/g respectively. Economic analysis showed that benefit cost ratios were 3:1, 2.13:1 and 2.10:1for LY1001-14, LY1001-10, and PVA SYN 13 respectively in 2013 and 1.33:1, 3.26:1 and 1.33:1 for the same varieties respectively in 2014. It was concluded from the study that the new maize varieties were high in productivity and pro-vitamin A contents and would increase farmers’ incomes, improve food security and help solve malnutrition problems when adopted by farmers.

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