Phage Dısplay Technology As A Strong Alternatıve To Hybrıdoma Technology For Monoclonal Antıbody Productıon

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Author(s) Uba A.I | Abdulazeez M.A | Usman S.S | Tabakoglu H.O | Abubakar H
Pages 125-131
Volume 4
Issue 3
Date March, 2015
Keywords Monoclonal Antibody, Hybridoma Technology, Phage Display Mutagenesis, PCR
Abstract

Therapeutic treatment of human diseases using human monoclonal antibodies has proven to be effective, though with few side effects. Monoclonal antibodies are specific against antigens. Hybridomas are hybrid cells of myeloma (cancer) cells with antibody-producing cells (lymphocytes from an immunized donor/ animal). Hybridoma technique has been used since 1975 for creating pure and uniform antibodies. The hybrid cell or hybridoma results from the fusion between myeloma cell and spleen cell of immunized cell of the donor. Attempts to use the hybridoma technology for generating human monoclonal antibodies have been hampered by the lack of a suitable human myeloma cell line. However, due to advances in recombinant DNA technology, more sophisticated antibodies can be engineered by combinational approaches such as bacteriophage display libraries, which have been reported as a strong alternative to hybridoma technology for antibody synthesis with desired antigen binding characteristics. Antibody with high affinity and avidity can be produced using bacteriophage display technology which makes use of M13, Escherichia coli-specific filamentous bacteriophage (a virus infecting bacteria) to whose gene, gene fragments encoding polypeptides or a peptide library are fused. This fusion protein is thought to become part of the capsid and the heterologous protein is displayed on the surfaces of the phage. The phage, contains a circular single stranded DNA genome. After a large library of mutants for a given antibody gene is made, mutagenesis can be done using error-prone PCR to incorporate random mutation in the gene. The peptide display libraries may be cloned directly into the viral genome so that all five copies of gpIII display the peptide fusion. Phage displaying the desired sequence is finally selected and amplified. This review points out the drawbacks of Hybridoma technology and presents Phage display technology as a strong alternative for monoclonal antibody production.

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