Transformation of Soybean (Glycine Max L.) Via GUS –Labeled Agrobacterium Rhizogenes R1000

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Author(s) Ghada SH. AL-Yozbaki | Jamella H. Rasheed | Shifa M. Salih
Pages 267-272
Volume 4
Issue 6
Date June, 2015
Keywords Human Enteric Viruses, Shellfish, Contamination, Virus Inactivation, Detection Methods.

Human and animal fecal wastes and urine contain a large number of different viruses that can enter the environment through the discharge of waste materials from infected individuals. Despite the high diversity of viruses that are introduced into the environment by human fecal pollution, only a few have been recognized to cause disease in association with consumption of contaminated shellfish. Viruses are present in shellfish in very low numbers. Nevertheless, they are present in sufficient quantities to pose a health risk as presented above. This low level of contamination has made it necessary to develop highly sensitive viral extraction methods to ensure virus recovery from shellfish tissues. The aim of this paper is to outline the importance of human enteric viruses in bivalve molluscs, describes of shellfish contamination and describes processing methods to reduce or eliminate enteric viruses in shellfish and summarize the advantages and limitations of current detection methodologies. Recommendations are also provided on the need for new research directions to address shellfish-borne viruses.

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