Health Risk Assessment of Heavy Metal Exposure from Soil Dust at Selected Fuel Filling Stations in Accra

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Author(s) C. G. Afrifa | F. G. Ofosu | S. A. Bamford | S. M. Atiemo | I. J. K. Aboh | O. Gyampo | H. Ahiamadjie | J. P. Adeti | J.K. Arthur
Pages 289-296
Volume 4
Issue 7
Date July, 2015
Keywords Human Health Risk, Enrichment Factors, Carcinogenic, Hazard Index, Cancer Risk, Heavy Metals.
Abstract

Heavy metal contamination in soil dust at fuel filling station and the human health risk was investigated in this work. Using energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence analysis technique (EDXRF), 18 elements were identified in each soil sample collected from three fuel filling stations at diesel and gasoline pump locations. The results of the enrichment factors ranged from insignificant to moderate contamination of heavy metal elements at the stations. The hazard quotient (HQ) evaluation, in the case of noncarcinogenic effects, showed ingestion to be the route of exposure to soil dust that results in a higher risk for heavy metals, followed by dermal contact. The effect due to inhalation of resuspended dust particles through the mouth and nose is relatively low. The hazard Index (HI) obtained for the heavy metals (V, Cr, Mn, Cu, Zn and Pb) were generally below 1.0, indicating noncancer adverse health effects to be most unlikely. Cancer risk index evaluated for Pb was below 1.0 which shows little or insignificant cancer adverse effect.

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