Cytotoxic Activity of Edible Mushrooms extracts against Tumor Cell Lines

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Author(s) Ahmed Younis | Jennifer Stewart | Fang-Sheng Wu | Hussien El Shikh | Fathy Hassan | Mahmoud Elaasser
Pages 736-749
Volume 3
Issue 11
Date November, 2014
Keywords Cytotoxic activity, Agaricus bisporus, Lentinula edodes, Pleurotus ostreatus, mushrooms extracts, edible mushroom, tumor cell lines.

Edible mushrooms are a valuable source of nutritional ingredients and biologically active compounds. The medicinal use of edible mushrooms extracts had advantages over the use of chemical substances, as edible mushrooms extracts are natural, less expensive and in general have minimal unwanted side effects. Moreover, edible mushroom have many medicinal properties, including the enhancement of immune function and antitumor activity. In this study we extracted various parts of three edible mushrooms including Agaricus bisporus, Lentinula edodes and Pleurotus ostreatus by different polar and non-polar solvents and tested the effectiveness of these extracts in inhibiting proliferation of three carcinoma cell lines including human liver carcinoma (Hep G2), the human colonic epithelial carcinoma (HCT 116) and the human cervical cancer cells (HeLa) using 3-(4,5-Dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay. We observed that the extracts of fresh and freeze-dried fruiting bodies had a stronger inhibition effect extracts from mycelia and broth when extracted by water and methanol. The highest cytotoxic activity was by the water extract of L. edodes lyophilized fruiting bodies with half maximal inhibitory concentration (IC50) values of 12.1±0.9, 15.8±1.1 and 15.3±0.9 µg/ml for Hep G2, HCT 116 and HeLa, respectively. Also water extracts of P. ostreatus lyophilized fruiting bodies showed high cytotoxicity effect with IC50 of 12.1±0.9, 15.1±1.7 and 16.7±0.8 µg/ml against HeLa, Hep G2 and HCT 116 cells, respectively. The lowest effect was observed by ether extract of L. edodes mycelia with maximum inhibitory percentage of 6.9±0.6 % against Hep G2 cells. In summary common edible mushrooms may be a source of antitumor compounds, but effects of these compounds on normal cells must be determined.

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