Heavy metals and black carbon assessment of PM10 particulates along Accra–Tema highway in Ghana

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Author(s) G. Safo-Adu | F.G. Ofosu | D. Carboo | Y. S. Armah
Pages 467-474
Volume 3
Issue 8
Date August, 2014
Keywords PM10, IVL sampler, ICP – AES, Smokestain Reflectometer, Black Carbon, Enrichment Factors.
Abstract

Inhalable particulate matter, Black Carbon(BC) and heavy metal levels in the ambient air of the Accra – Tema highway in Ghana was assessed. Using IVL sampler and Sierra Anderson (GAST) pump, airborne particulates were sampled on Teflon filters from November to December, 2011. Elemental and black carbon concentrations were determined using ICP – AES and Smokestain Reflectometer respectively. The average concentrations of PM10 and BC were 86.97µg/m3 and 17.82µg/m3 respectively showing significant contribution of carbonaceous compounds to the ambient air particulates levels. The PM10 and BC levels varied significantly with the days of the week, with the weekends recording relatively lower levels. Elements of crustal origin were identified as the major elements while those of anthropogenic origins were present in trace quantities. Enrichment Factor model (EF) was used to identify species of crustal and non–crustal origin in the ambient air particulates. The Enrichment Factor values obtained for the elements V, Cr, Cu, Ni, Zn, As, Cd and Pb showed that they are mostly from anthropogenic sources.

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