Selected Clays of the Bida and Anambra Basins of Nigeria: Their Characteristics, Fired Properties and Ceramic-Suitability

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Author(s) ALEGE, Emmanuel Korede | ALEGE Tope Shade
Pages 560-567
Volume 2
Issue 7
Date July, 2013
Keywords Clay, Ceramicwares, Linear Shrinkage, Modulus of Rupture

Clay samples selected from four different locations within the Anambra and Bida Basins of Nigeria were characterized in accordance with American Society of Testing and Material (ASTM). Some ceramic properties of the clays were also determined. The chemical composition of the clay samples shows that Silica range from 52.66% to 79.17%, Alumina-9.76% to 24.35%, Iron Oxide-1.27% to 7.78%, Calcium Oxide-0.01% to 0.24%, Magnessium Oxide-0.11% to 0.14%, Alkali (K2O+Na2O) is 1.42% to 1.75% and trace elements like Titanium, Phosphorus and Sulphur Oxides. The range of the mean drying linear shrinkages for selected clays is 6.5-11.6%, while the range of the mean fired linear shrinkages for the selected clays (about 150° C) is 7.7-12.3%. The drying Modulus of Rupture of the clays range from 2.7-11.7MPa. The fired Modulus of Rupture of the clays range from 6.3-16.3MPa. The Loss-on-Ignition (LOI) varied from 5.3-12.8%. The characteristics of the firing behaviour revealed a dry-to-firing colour variation of white-to-white, grey-to-light brown, milky white-to-brilliant brown and light brown-to-brilliant red. This confirms the suitability for wide range of ceramicwares application ranging from vitrified whitewares to brickwares, coloured vaze and tiles.

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