Effect of Activity Directed Fractions of Vernonia amygdalina on Total Body Weight and Blood Glucose Levels of Diabetic Wistar Albino Rats

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Author(s) Ekam V. S. | Ebong P. E. | Johnson J. T. | Dasofunjo, K.
Pages 153-157
Volume 2
Issue 1
Date January, 2013
Keywords Activity-directed fractions, Vernonia amygdalina, total body-weight ,blood glucose,diabetes

The effect of administering activity directed fractions of Vernonia amygdalina leaves on diabetic wistar albino rats was investigated on 84 wistar albino rats divided into 14 groups of 6 rats each. Group 1, the normal control was non-diabetic and received only distilled water; Group 2, the diabetic control group, was made diabetic and received only distilled water. Groups 3-14, were induced diabetes mellitus using 150mg/kg body weight of alloxan and treated with various activity directed fractions of Vernonia amygdalina. The fractions were obtained by fractionation of the crude ethanolic extract using organic solvents of increasing polarities. The experimental treatment period lasted for 14 days. Two doses of the extracts used were 100mg/kg (dose 1) and 200mg/kg (dose 2) body weight. Treatment with both the 100mg/kg and 200mg/kg doses of the benzene, chloroform and butanol fractions as well as the 100mg/kg dose groups treated with ethyl acetate and residue E fractions resulted in considerable improvements in growth rate and body weight increase. The 100mg/kg doses of benzene, ethyl acetate, methanol and residue E fractions resulted in more improved outcomes in growth rate and weight increase compared to their 200mg/kg dose counterparts. Comparison of the blood glucose levels show that the percentage decrease in blood glucose level was significantly lower in the diabetic control group compared with the normal control. Treatment of the diabetic rats with 100mg/kg and 200mg/kg doses of the benzene fraction caused drastic reductions in the blood glucose levels; with the 200mg/kg dose bringing the blood glucose level to physiological level. In the methanol and butanol as well as residue E fraction treated groups, blood glucose levels reduced significantly (p<0.05) within the two weeks treatment period, although this did not normalize the hyperglycemic condition within the limited time (14 days) in which the treatment lasted.

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